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双语 | “星巴克咖啡致癌”风波后 你还敢喝吗?

楼主:译·世界 时间:2019-10-05 07:32:08

这两天,“星巴克咖啡致癌”的传闻刷爆了朋友圈。据美联社、华尔街日报、路透社等报道,美国洛杉矶一家法院裁决,星巴克和其他几家咖啡公司在加州销售的咖啡必须贴上癌症警告标签。


什么情况?喝了这么多年,竟然冒着生命危险?消息一出,很多咖啡党都不好了,难道以后不能愉快地喝咖啡了吗?

放轻松,你想知道的真相都在这里↓


Starbucks China has responded to public concerns that a chemical in its coffee may cause cancer, saying that "providing quality and safe foods and beverages to consumers" is the company's highest priority.

近日,关于星巴克咖啡中含致癌化学物质的问题引发公众关注,星巴克中国对此进行回应称,星巴克始终坚持把“为顾客提供高品质及安全可靠的食品与饮料”放在首位。


星巴克董事长、CEO霍华德·舒尔茨(Howard Schultz)


The statement made on Saturday comes in response to a ruling earlier this week by a judge in California that might see Starbucks and other coffee sellers in the state required to print warnings on their products that they contain acrylamide.

星巴克于3月31日作出的这份声明旨在回应几天前加利福利亚州一位法官作出的判决,判决要求包括星巴克在内的加州咖啡销售商,必须在咖啡产品上贴上“含丙烯酰胺”的警告标签。


The suit was filed against Starbucks along with 90 other companies in 2010, claiming that they were violating state law by not warning consumers about the acrylamide in their product. Acrylamide is a potential carcinogen that is created when coffee beans are roasted.

这起诉讼于2010年提起,控告星巴克及其他90家咖啡销售商违反加州法律,在咖啡产品上没有警告顾客其中含有丙烯酰胺。丙烯酰胺是一种潜在的致癌物质,在烘焙咖啡豆时产生。



According to the U.S. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act, warning labels should be used to inform consumers when a product contains one or more of around 900 chemicals believed to cause cancer or birth defects. Private citizens, advocacy groups, and attorneys are allowed to sue on behalf of the state and collect a portion of the civil penalties for failures to provide the warnings.

根据美国《饮用水安全与毒性物质强制执行法》,当产品含有约900种已知会导致癌症或出生缺陷的化学物质中的一种或多种时,应使用警告标签告知消费者。对于不提供警告标签的行为,普通公民、游说团体和律师均可代表加州上诉,收取部分民事罚款。


There are still a couple of weeks for the defendants to appeal the ruling.

被告仍有几周时间对判决提出上诉。


However, the World Health Organization (WHO) removed coffee from its list of "possible carcinogens" in 2016.

但世界卫生组织在2016年将咖啡从其“可能致癌物”名单中删除。


Some coffee drinkers say they'll give coffee drinking a second thought after the ruling, while others say that nothing can stop them from treating themselves to a few cups of coffee a week.

一些咖啡爱好说,他们会在判决后重新考虑要不要喝咖啡,而另一些人则说,什么都不能阻挡他们每周喝几杯咖啡。


CBS News medical contributor Dr. David Agus, director of the Westside Cancer Center at USC, says he believes it is too early to put this kind of blanket warning on coffee.

CBS新闻医学撰稿人、南加州大学韦斯特赛德癌症中心主任大卫·阿古斯博士说,他认为现在对咖啡进行这种全面警告还为时过早。


CBS新闻医学撰稿人、南加州大学韦斯特赛德癌症中心主任大卫·阿古斯博士


"When you put a bold declaration that 'X may cause cancer' when there isn't data to that effect in humans, to me it causes panic rather than informed knowledge," he said.

他表示:“当你大胆宣称‘某物可能致癌’,而又缺乏人体实验数据时,于我而言,这不仅无法让人了解真实情况,反而会引起恐慌。”


The World Health Organization's cancer agency moved coffee off the "possible carcinogen" list two years ago, though it says evidence is insufficient to rule out any possible role.

两年前,世界卫生组织的癌症机构将咖啡从“可能致癌物”名单中删除,尽管该机构表示完全排除其致癌可能性的证据尚且不足。


The current flap isn't about coffee itself, but a chemical called acrylamide that's made when the beans are roasted. Government agencies call it a probable or likely carcinogen, based on animal research, and a group sued to require coffee sellers to warn of that under a California law passed by voters in 1986.

目前的问题并不在于咖啡本身,而是一种叫做丙烯酰胺的化学物质,它是在咖啡豆烘焙时产生的。政府机构基于动物实验称其为可能的致癌物。一个团体根据1986年选民通过的一项加州法律,起诉要求咖啡销售商作出致癌警告。


Coffee and your health

咖啡和健康



The problem: No one knows what levels are safe or risky for people. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sets acrylamide limits for drinking water, but there aren't any for food.

问题是没有人知道什么剂量的丙烯酰胺对人体是安全的或危险的。美国环保局规定了饮用水中丙烯酰胺的含量限值,但没有规定食品中的含量限值。


"A cup of coffee a day, exposure probably is not that high," and probably should not change your habit, said Dr. Bruce Y. Lee of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. "If you drink a lot of cups a day, this is one of the reasons you might consider cutting that down."

约翰霍普金斯大学彭博公共卫生学院的布鲁斯·李博士说:“一天喝一杯咖啡,丙烯酰胺危害你身体的几率可能没那么高,所以不太需要改变这一习惯。如果一天喝很多杯,丙烯酰胺的潜在致癌性可能会成为你考虑减少咖啡摄入量的原因之一。”


Here's what's known about the risks.

以下是已知的咖啡的风险。


The chemical

关于丙烯酰胺


Start with the biggest known risk factor for cancer - smoking - which generates acrylamide. In the diet, French fries, potato chips, crackers, cookies, cereal and other high-carbohydrate foods contain it as a byproduct of roasting, baking, toasting or frying.

从已知致癌风险最大的因素——烟雾说起,烟雾会产生丙烯酰胺。在饮食中,炸薯条、薯片、饼干、曲奇、谷物和其他高碳水化合物食品都含有丙烯酰胺,这是烧烤、烘焙、炸制过程中的副产品。



Food and Drug Administration tests of acrylamide levels found they ranged from 175 to 351 parts per billion (a measure of concentration for a contaminant) for six brands of coffee tested; the highest was for one type of decaf coffee crystals. By comparison, French fries at one fast food chain ranged from 117 to 313 parts per billion, depending on the location tested. Some commercial fries had more than 1,000.

美国食品药品监督管理局对6个品牌的咖啡进行丙烯酰胺含量测试,结果表明其范围在十亿分之175到351之间,最高值出现在一款脱因咖啡的晶体中。相比之下,某连锁快餐企业的炸薯条中丙烯酰胺含量范围是十亿分之117-313,结果取决于测试地点。有的商家其薯条中丙烯酰胺含量超过十亿分之1000。


Even some baby foods contain acrylamide, such as teething biscuits and crackers. One brand of organic sweet potatoes tested as having 121 parts per billion.

甚至有些婴儿食品也含丙烯酰胺,如磨牙饼干。测试的某品牌有机番薯中丙烯酰胺含量为十亿分之121。


What's the risk?

风险何在?


The "probable" or "likely" carcinogen label is based on studies of animals given high levels of acrylamide in drinking water. But people and rodents absorb the chemical at different rates and metabolize it differently, so its relevance to human health is unknown.

“可能致癌”的标记是基于给动物喝丙烯酰胺含量很高的饮用水并加以研究得出的,但人和啮齿动物对化学物质的吸收,代谢程度不同,因此这种物质与人类健康的关系不得而知。


A group of 23 scientists convened by the WHO's cancer agency in 2016 looked at coffee - not acrylamide directly - and decided coffee was unlikely to cause breast, prostate or pancreatic cancer,  and that it seemed to lower the risks for liver and uterine cancers. Evidence was inadequate to determine its effect on dozens of other cancer types.

2016年世界卫生组织癌症机构召集23名科学家对咖啡进行研究,并不直接针对丙烯酰胺,确认咖啡不太可能导致乳腺、前列腺或胰腺癌,而且还能降低肝癌和子宫癌的风险。关于咖啡是否对其他各种癌症产生影响,决定性证据尚不充分。


说了这么多,只想告诉你,今后依然可以继续愉快地喝咖啡~~那么,你知道咖啡起源吗?咖啡又是何时传入中国的呢?且听Yee君分解↓


A brief history of coffee

咖啡简史



No one knows exactly how or when coffee was discovered, though there are many legends about its origin. The 2 most common legends that you will hear is that coffee was either discovered in Ethiopia or Yemen.

尽管关于咖啡的来源有各种不同的传说,但没人确切地知道咖啡是在何时以何种方式为人所发现。流传最广的两种说法是,咖啡是在埃塞俄比亚或也门发现的。


In this short bog, I will just summarize the most common legend, which is from Ethiopia.  

在这篇短文里,我将简述下流传最广的版本,即咖啡源于埃塞俄比亚的传说。


The Ethiopian legend goes like this…..

埃塞俄比亚的传说是这样的…


Kaldi, an Abyssinian goat herder from Kaffa, was herding his goats through a highland area near a monastery. He noticed that they were behaving very strangely that day, and had begun to jump around in an excited manner, bleating loudly and practically dancing on their hind legs.

一位来自卡法的阿比西尼亚牧羊人卡尔迪在一座修道院附近的高地上放羊。他注意到这些羊当天的行为非常怪异,开始兴奋地上蹿下跳,大声咩咩叫,并站着跳舞。


He found that the source of the excitement was a small shrub with bright red berries. Curiosity took hold and he tried the berries for himself.

他发现,造成羊儿兴奋的原因是灌木丛中的鲜红浆果。出于好奇,他亲自尝了尝这种果子。



Like his goats, Kaldi felt the energizing effects of the coffee cherries. After filling his pockets with the red berries, he rushed home to his wife, and she advised him to go to the nearby monastery in order to share these “heaven sent” berries with the monks.

结果卡尔迪和羊一样,感受到了这些咖啡果带来的提神效果。他将兜里装满这种红果后跑回家给妻子看,妻子建议他去附近的修道院,和僧侣们分享这些“天赐”浆果。


Upon arrival at the monastery, Kaldi’s coffee beans were not greeted with elation, but with disdain. One monk called Kaldi’s bounty “the Devil’s work” and tossed it into a fire.

到达修道院后,卡尔迪的咖啡豆并没有收到僧侣们的欢迎,而是遭到了唾弃。一个僧侣将卡尔迪赠送的果子称为“恶魔之果”,并将其扔到了火中。


However, according to legend, the aroma of the roasting beans was enough to make the monks give this novelty a second chance. They removed the coffee from the fire, crushed them to put out the glowing embers and covered them with hot water in an ewer to preserve them.

然而,根据传说,豆子烘焙的香气使僧侣们重新认识到了这个稀奇的物种。他们把咖啡从火里拿了出来,把咖啡豆压碎,把炽热的灰烬扑灭,把它们放在热水壶里保存。



All the monks in the monastery smelled the aroma of the coffee and came to try it.

这个修道院里的所有僧侣都闻到了咖啡的香味,跑过来品尝。


These monks found that coffee’s uplifting effects were beneficial in keeping them awake during their spiritual practice of prayers and holy devotions. They vowed that from then on they would drink this newfound beverage each day as an aid to their religious devotions.

这些僧侣们发现,咖啡的提神效果有助于他们在祷告和敬拜的灵修期间保持清醒。打那时起,他们发誓每天都要喝这种新发现的饮料,以帮助他们进行宗教祈祷。


However, this story did not appear in writing until A.D. 1671. It is generally considered to be apocryphal rather than a true history of coffee’s origin.

直到公元1671年,这个故事才有了书面记载。然而,这个说法虽然广为流传,但却遭到质疑,人们认为这并非咖啡起源的真实历史。


In the 16th century, the Middle East coveted coffee and deemed it a holy beverage. Due to coffee’s popularity, coffee plants and beans became a major export, but the process took ages and was rather expensive. To cut out the middle man, many countries smuggled coffee into Italy and other parts of Europe. Talk about some risky business for a bitter drink.

16世纪,中东地区非常热爱咖啡,将其视为一种神圣的饮品。由于咖啡广受欢迎,咖啡树和咖啡豆成为了主要出口商品,但这个过程极为漫长,并且费用不小。为了剔除中间人,许多国家将咖啡走私到意大利和欧洲其他地区。通过冒险的生意来换取一杯苦咖啡。



Coffee needs nice warm climate to flourish. The French territory in the 1700s named coffee as their own and forced natives of the Dominican Republic into slavery to supply most of the world with coffee. This was known as the Haitian Revolution and due to the overkill in their coffee crops, the Dominican Republic didn’t recover until 1940s and still hasn’t reestablished their name as the number one coffee exporter.

咖啡的种植需要温暖宜人的气候。18世纪,法国称咖啡为自己的东西,强迫多米尼加共和国本土人当奴隶,向世界大部分地区供应咖啡,引发了“海地革命”。由于多米尼加共和国咖啡作物的过度破坏,直到1940年它的经济才得以恢复,但至今仍没有为自己是第一咖啡出口国正名。


Still today, many developing countries rely on coffee as their cash crop and supports the economy of countries such as Uganda and Ethiopia. Today, the US alone consumes 971,000 tones of coffee annually.

直到今天,许多发展中国家仍然依赖咖啡作为经济作物,支持乌干达和埃塞俄比亚等国的经济。如今,仅美国每年就消费97.1万吨咖啡。


咖啡是如何进入中国的?


咖啡传入我国的历史并不长,直到1884年咖啡才在台湾首次种植成功。


在中国大陆,最早的咖啡种植则开始于云南。二十世纪初叶,法国传教士将第一批咖啡树苗带到云南的宾川县,从此咖啡开始在大陆种植。


从自然条件上来说,我国的许多地区和非洲、中南美洲以及越南、印度尼西亚等地很接近,有着咖啡种植的先天条件。但中国人喝茶已经有了几千年的历史,作为世界上茶的原产地,人们在消费习惯和观念上对咖啡这种外来的饮料或多或少地存在着一种抵触,因此,在咖啡传入中国后相当长的一段时间内,咖啡种植没有受到足够重视,发展极其缓慢。


20世纪30年代,上海最早的咖啡馆开在外滩,供那些外国水手们过过咖啡瘾,或许也有解解乡愁的意味。



那时的咖啡,被上海人称为“咳嗽药水”。当然,这只是上海咖啡馆的一个片断,那个时期的上海,还有许多从海外归来的华侨,他们在生活中,保持着喝咖啡的习惯——不仅仅是去咖啡馆,更多的时候他们在自家的餐厅或客厅里,品尝香浓的咖啡。



但这种关于咖啡和下午茶之类的活动,在1949年以后发生了改变。在20世纪80年代之前,咖啡之于大多数中国人而言,是一个陌生的词汇和一种陌生的东西。在20世纪70年代,一些涉外酒店开始有自己的咖啡厅,但那是需要外汇券付账的,离老百姓很远。


直到20世纪80年代,人们才开始从广告中熟悉咖啡。速溶咖啡,对于大多数人来说,经历了大约十年左右以为“速溶咖啡就是咖啡”的时光。那时候,装着“雀巢”或者“麦氏”的玻璃瓶子,即便是喝空了,也常被摆在柜子里,或者成为主人在办公室喝水的杯子——这绝不仅仅因为它粗壮厚实。



当时,“咖啡”和“速溶咖啡”是两个可以互换的名词。直到诸如美国的星巴克和香港的茶餐厅进入,人们开始意识到原来咖啡不是速溶咖啡,而是另外一种东西。是什么东西呢?是时尚、是星巴克内的抽象画、爵士乐和具有侵略性的咖啡香;是茶餐厅内诸如“鸳鸯”这种一半茶一半咖啡混合出来的、口味上中西合璧的饮料,盛在精致的白瓷碟里被侍者端起来配菜。而星巴克,因为更具有异国风情和时尚情调,继“速溶咖啡”之后,成为咖啡的又一代名词。


来源:译世界编译自CBS、CRI、ATS Coffee、ODYSSEY,综编自每日咖啡资讯


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